Threeband pennantfish [Heniochus chrysostomus]

threeband pennantfish

Heniochus chrysostomus, common name Threeband pennantfish, is a tropical fish of the family Chaetodontidae. Heniochus chrysostomus can attain a maximum length of 18 centimetres (7.1 in) in males. The body is oval, laterally flattened, with a basic white color and three broad oblique brown bands. The first band runs from the forehead up to the pelvic fins, the second from the dorsal fin to the anal fin, the third is adjacent to the dorsal fin. The dorsal fin is elongated, in juveniles much more than in adults. Juvenile fishes are solitary. The snout tip is yellow. This species is oviparous and feeds on coral polyps. This species has an Indo-Pacific distribution, from Western India to Pitcairn Islands, Japan, southern Queensland, Micronesia and New Caledonia. Threeband pennantfish typically lives below the intertidal zone in coastal waters and in shallow water lagoon among the coral reefs, at a depth of 2–40 metres (6 ft 7 in–131 ft 3 in).

 Pictures: Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

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Picasso Triggerfish [Rhinecanthus aculeatus]

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The lagoon triggerfish (Rhinecanthus aculeatus), also known as the blackbar triggerfish, the Picasso triggerfish, thePicassofish, and the Jamal, is a triggerfish, up to 30 cm in length, found on reefs in the Indo-Pacific region. The Hawaiian name for the fish, humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa, (meaning “triggerfish with a snout like a pig”) shares the same name with the reef triggerfish, the state fish of Hawaii. This species has been studied in a range of research contexts, from locomotion to colour vision research.

 Pictures: taken at Cook Islands by Sami Salmenkivi

golden trevally [Gnathanodon speciosus]

00 Golden Trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus

The golden trevallyGnathanodon speciosus (also known as the golden kingfishbanded trevally and king trevally), is a species of large marine fish classified in the jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae, and the only member of the genus Gnathanodon. The golden trevally is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from South Africa in the west to Central America in the east, extending to Japan in the north and Australia in the south. The species predominantly occupies inshore waters where it inhabits both reef and sandy substrates. The golden trevally is easily distinguished from its relatives by its fleshy, rubbery lips and unique colouration, which ranges from bright yellow with black bars as a juvenile to a golden-silvery colour as an adult. It is known to grow to 120 cm in length and 15 kg in weight. The golden trevally schools as a juvenile, often closely following larger objects including sharks and jellyfish. The species uses its protractile jaws to suck out prey from the sand or reef, and consumes a variety of fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Spawning aggregations gather at night at different times of the year throughout its range.

 Pictures: Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

Coral Shrimpfish [Aeoliscus strigatus]

x Coral Shrimpfish, Aeoliscus strigatus

Coral Shripfish Aeoliscus strigatus, also known as the razorfish, is a member of the family Centriscidae of the order Syngnathiformes. This unique fish adopts a head-down tail-up position as an adaptation for hiding among sea urchin spines. The razorfish is found in coastal waters in the Indo-Pacific, ranging from the central Indian Ocean to the Red Sea to Hawaii. Its natural habitat includes beds of sea grass and coral reefs, where sea urchins are found.

 Pictures: Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

Klein’s butterflyfish [Chaetodon kleinii]

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The Sunburst Butterflyfish or Black-lipped Butterflyfish or Blacklip butterflyfish or Klein’s Butterflyfish. In the creoles of Mauritius and Réunion it is called papillon (“butterfly”). Its scientific name is Chaetodon kleinii.
It is a native of the Indo-Pacific region, from the Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Australia and New Caledonia. It is also found in Galapagos Islands in the the Eastern Pacific.
Under its junior synonym C. corallicola was placed in the monotypic subgenus Tifia, but this cannot be separated from the earlier-described Lepidochaetodon (sometimes considered a separate genus). It appears to be closer to the Tahiti Butterflyfish (C. trichrous) than to the Teardrop Butterflyfish (C. unimaculatus).

The body of this fish is yellowish brown with 1-2 broad lighter vertical bars, one running from near the origin of the dorsal spine to the belly, and sometimes another running from the middle of the back to the center of the body. A black bar runs vertically across the eye, and the part before this is whitish, with a black snout. The color varies somewhat across the range; western specimens usually have one beige bar, while eastern ones have two white bars. There may be numerous dotted horizontal stripes on the sides, or another dark band between the two light ones in eastern specimens.
In the wild, the Sunburst Butterflyfish is found at depths of 4–61 meters, usually in deeper lagoons and channels and seaward reefs, swimming singly, or (particularly during breeding) in pairs. These fish are oviparous.
They are omnivores, feeding mainly on soft coral polyps (especially Litophyton viridis and Sarcophyton tracheliophorum), algae and zooplankton. In the aquarium, Chaetodon kleinii will eat meaty food such as mysis. Its coral-eating habits can become a nuisance, but on the other hand they are fond of Aiptasia, small sea anemones that often become a pest in seawater aquaria. (text source: Wikipedia)
Pictures: Misool Islands, Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

Panda butterflyfish [Chaetodon adiergastos]

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The Philippine Butterflyfish or Panda butterflyfish, Chaetodon adiergastos, is a species of butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae). It is found in the western Pacific, from the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan to Java and northwestern Australia.

It grows to a maximum length of 20 cm (nearly 8 in). The body is white with diagonal brown stripes on the sides. The dorsal, caudal, anal and pelvic fins are yellow. There are rounded broad black bands on the face, covering the eye, but not continuous from one side of the body to the other but with a separate black spot centered on the forehead.
It belongs to the large subgenus Rabdophorus which might warrant recognition as a distinct genus. In this group, it appears to belong to a loose group including such species as the Black Butterflyfish (C. flavirostris), Diagonal Butterflyfish (C. fasciatus), Raccoon Butterflyfish (C. lunula) and perhaps also the unusual Red-tailed Butterflyfish (C. collare). Although the coloration of this group varies quite a lot, they are all largish butterflyfishes with an oval outline, and most have a pattern of ascending oblique stripes on the flanks. Except in the Red-tailed Butterflyfish, there is at least a vestigial form of the “raccoon” mask, with a white space between the dark crown and eye areas.

The Philippine Butterflyfish is found in coral reefs at depths of 3-25 m and occurs in pairs or groups, usually near soft coral. Juveniles are solitary and found on shallow protected reefs or in estuaries.

Pictures: Misool Islands, Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

Spot-banded butterflyfish [Chaetodon punctatofasciatus]

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The Spot-banded Butterflyfish or Spotband butterflyfish (Chaetodon punctatofasciatus) is a species of butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae).
It is found in the Indo-Pacific region from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean to the Line Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Rowley Shoals and the northern Great Barrier Reef, and throughout Micronesia. Replaced by its close relative the Peppered Butterflyfish (C. guttatissimus) in the Indian Ocean, these two species are sympatric from Christmas Island to Bali.[1]
This is one of the members of the subgenus Exornator. With the Peppered Butterflyfish it is part of a close-knit group which also includes the Pebbled Butterflyfish (C. multicinctus) and the Sunset Butterflyfish (C. pelewensis). It is suspected that these four are able to produce fertile hybrids. If the genus Chaetodon is split up, Exornator might become a subgenus of Lepidochaetodon.[2]
The Spot-banded Butterflyfish grows to a maximum of 12 cm long. Its body is pale grey with close-set grey spots which are aligned in vertical bands, interspersed with yellow, on the upper sides and form horizontal rows on the lower sides. The dorsal fin has a yellow margin and there is a bright orange patch running through the caudal peduncle.[1]
It is found in coral-rich areas and clear waters of seaward and lagoon reefs. This fish feeds on filamentous algae and coral polyps and other benthic invertebrates.

Pictures: Misool Islands, Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi