The Four-spotted Butterflyfish or fourspot butterflyfish, Chaetodon quadrimaculatus is a species of butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae) found in the Pacific Ocean from the Ryukyus, Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands and Taiwan to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Pitcairn islands, south to the Samoan and Austral Islands and the Marianas and Marshall Islands in Micronesia. It is a quite distinct species, but most closely related to the Speckled Butterflyfish (C. citrinellus). Together they are basal in the subgenus Exornator, and might be intermediate between the core group of this subgenus and the species of the Rhombochaetodon (or Roaops) lineage. If that is correct, the latter would require to be merged into Exornator. If the genus Chaetodon is split up, Exornator might become a subgenus of Lepidochaetodon.
Pictures: Cook Islands by Sami Salmenkivi
The Orbiculate cardinalfish, Sphaeramia orbicularis is a species of cardinalfish. It grows to about 10 centimeters total length, and has a thin, dark vertical ‘waistband’ with scattered dark spots toward the tail. It is found in coastal areas throughout much of the Indo-Pacific, including East Africa, Kiribati, the Ryukyu Islands, New Caledonia, Belau, and the eastern Caroline and Mariana Islands. The male incubates the eggs until they hatch. It eats mostly planktonic crustaceans, mainly at night. While it is not a common marine aquarium fish, it can be a good for beginners.
Pictures: Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi
Siganus guttatus is a Rabbitfish from the Eastern Indian Ocean. It occasionally makes its way into the aquarium trade. It grows to a size of 42 cm in length.
Pictures: Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi
Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus, the Coral hawkfish, is a species of hawkfish found on tropical reefs of the Indo-Pacific. It occasionally is found in the aquarium trade. It grows to a length of 10 centimetres (3.9 in)
Pictures: Great Barrier Reef, Australia by Sami Salmenkivi
The oriental flying gurnard, Dactyloptena orientalis, is a flying gurnard of the family Dactylopteridae. This flying gurnard inhabits the Indo-Pacific Oceans at depths to 100 metres (330 ft). Their name is derived from the French word ‘gurnard’ meaning to grunt, for the grunting sound this fish makes.
The oriental flying gurnard is up to 40 centimetres (16 in) in length and is usually a grayish brown color with dark markings. The fish has huge, round pectoral finshaving many dark markings and a bright blue edge. The pectoral fins are normally held against the body, but when threatened the fins are expanded to scare predators which include sea breams and mackerel. The flying gurnard uses its pelvic fins to walk along the bottom of the ocean. The oriental flying gurnard feed on bony fish, bivalves, and crustaceans.
Pictures: Sulawesi, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi
The Papuans epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium hallstromi, is a bamboo shark in the family Hemiscylliidae found around southern Papua New Guinea, between latitudes 7° S and 10° S, and longitude 144° E and 146° E. Its length is up to 75 cm. Reproduction is oviparous.
The Spot-banded Butterflyfish or Spotband butterflyfish (Chaetodon punctatofasciatus) is a species of butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae).
It is found in the Indo-Pacific region from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean to the Line Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Rowley Shoals and the northern Great Barrier Reef, and throughout Micronesia. Replaced by its close relative the Peppered Butterflyfish (C. guttatissimus) in the Indian Ocean, these two species are sympatric from Christmas Island to Bali.
This is one of the members of the subgenus Exornator. With the Peppered Butterflyfish it is part of a close-knit group which also includes the Pebbled Butterflyfish (C. multicinctus) and the Sunset Butterflyfish (C. pelewensis). It is suspected that these four are able to produce fertile hybrids. If the genus Chaetodon is split up, Exornator might become a subgenus of Lepidochaetodon.
The Spot-banded Butterflyfish grows to a maximum of 12 cm long. Its body is pale grey with close-set grey spots which are aligned in vertical bands, interspersed with yellow, on the upper sides and form horizontal rows on the lower sides. The dorsal fin has a yellow margin and there is a bright orange patch running through the caudal peduncle.
It is found in coral-rich areas and clear waters of seaward and lagoon reefs. This fish feeds on filamentous algae and coral polyps and other benthic invertebrates.
Pictures: Misool Islands, Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi