Stonefish [Synanceia horrida]

Stonefish

Synanceia verrucosa is a fish species known as the reef stonefish or simply stonefish. It is a carnivorous ray-finned fish with venomous spines. It lives on reef bottoms camouflaged as a rock. It is the most venomous known fish in the world. It can be lethal to humans. This stonefish lives primarily above the Tropic of Capricorn. It is the most widespread species in the stonefish family, and is known from shallow tropical marine waters in the Pacific and Indian Oceans from the Red Sea to the Great Barrier Reef.

This stonefish is usually brown or gray, and it may have areas of yellow, orange or red. This species reaches 30 to 40 centimeters long; a specimen of 51 centimeters has been recorded. This fish lives in coral reefs. It may settle on and around rocks and plants, or rest on the seabed. It eats mostly small fish, shrimp and other crustaceans.

 Pictures: Great Barrier Reef, Australia by Sami Salmenkivi

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Klein’s butterflyfish [Chaetodon kleinii]

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The Sunburst Butterflyfish or Black-lipped Butterflyfish or Blacklip butterflyfish or Klein’s Butterflyfish. In the creoles of Mauritius and Réunion it is called papillon (“butterfly”). Its scientific name is Chaetodon kleinii.
It is a native of the Indo-Pacific region, from the Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Australia and New Caledonia. It is also found in Galapagos Islands in the the Eastern Pacific.
Under its junior synonym C. corallicola was placed in the monotypic subgenus Tifia, but this cannot be separated from the earlier-described Lepidochaetodon (sometimes considered a separate genus). It appears to be closer to the Tahiti Butterflyfish (C. trichrous) than to the Teardrop Butterflyfish (C. unimaculatus).

The body of this fish is yellowish brown with 1-2 broad lighter vertical bars, one running from near the origin of the dorsal spine to the belly, and sometimes another running from the middle of the back to the center of the body. A black bar runs vertically across the eye, and the part before this is whitish, with a black snout. The color varies somewhat across the range; western specimens usually have one beige bar, while eastern ones have two white bars. There may be numerous dotted horizontal stripes on the sides, or another dark band between the two light ones in eastern specimens.
In the wild, the Sunburst Butterflyfish is found at depths of 4–61 meters, usually in deeper lagoons and channels and seaward reefs, swimming singly, or (particularly during breeding) in pairs. These fish are oviparous.
They are omnivores, feeding mainly on soft coral polyps (especially Litophyton viridis and Sarcophyton tracheliophorum), algae and zooplankton. In the aquarium, Chaetodon kleinii will eat meaty food such as mysis. Its coral-eating habits can become a nuisance, but on the other hand they are fond of Aiptasia, small sea anemones that often become a pest in seawater aquaria. (text source: Wikipedia)
Pictures: Misool Islands, Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

Arabian Angelfish [Pomacanthus asfur]

egypt-angelfish1

The Arabian angelfish, Pomacanthus asfur is a fish well known for its use in saltwater aquariums, even though it tends to be a shyer specimen compared to the other, sometimes aggressive, angelfish. The mother will lay the eggs in a scattered pattern so that the young wont fight for food and territory. (text: Wikipedia)

Pictures: Red Sea, Egypt by Sami Salmenkivi

Whitetip reef shark [Triaenodon obesus]

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The whitetip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus, is a requiem shark of the family Carcharhinidae, the only member of the genus Triaenodon.

The whitetip reef shark is one of the most common sharks found in shallow tropical and warm temperate water around coral reefs in the Indian and Pacific oceans. It occurs at depths down to 330 metres (1,100 ft). Snorkelers often encounter these sharks.

As its name suggests, the tips of the shark’s first dorsal fin and upper caudal fin are white. The upper body is grey/brownish. Their average length is about 140 to 160 centimetres (55 to 63 in) and the maximum reported length is 2.1 metres (6.9 ft).[1] Its head is broad and flat.

The whitetip reef shark feeds primarily on crustaceans, octopuses, and fish.

This bottom dwelling shark is nocturnal and is often seen resting on the bottom during the day, sometimes in small groups. It is not aggressive and will generally swim away if disturbed, although it may bite if harassed. At night it hunts among crevices in the reef.

Reproduction is viviparous, with one to five pups in a litter, the gestation period being at least five months. The shark’s size at birth ranges from 50 centimetres (20 in) to 60 centimetres (24 in). It is estimated that this shark can live for about 25 years and it reaches maturity after about five years. (text source: Wikipedia)

Pictures: Gili Islands, Lombok, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

Blacktip reef shark [Carcharhinus melanopterus]

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The blacktip reef shark, Carcharhinus melanopterus, is a shark of tropical and warm temperate seas. It is often confused with the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus.

One of the most common sharks found in shallow (sometimes as shallow as 30 cm) water around coral reefs of Indo-Pacific waters. The water they swim in is usually between 20 and 27° C (70 to 80º F). Blacktip reef sharks do not venture into tropical lakes and rivers far from the ocean.

As its name suggests, the tips of the shark’s pectoral fins and dorsal fin are black, with a white underside. Its skin is brownish in color on the top half of its body. It has been recorded at up to 2 m (6.5 ft) in length and over 99 lbs (45 kg) in weight.[1] Its snout is blunt and rounded. The gray reef shark looks similar, and is also common, but is distinguished by its stockier and grey body and its lack of a black tip on the dorsal fin.

A blacktip reef shark’s diet consists mainly of reef fish, but they will also feed on rays, crabs, crustaceans, cephalopods, and other mollusks.
[edit]Reproduction, behavior, and interaction with humans

Reproduction is viviparous, with 2 to 4 pups in a litter. Before giving birth, female blacktip reef sharks will incubate their young for 16 months. The pups’ length at birth ranges from 33 to 52 cm.
This species is not considered social, but can be seen in small groups. While generally shy, they often are curious about snorkelers and scuba divers. As with most sharks, the body is bent into a sort of “S” shape when the shark feels threatened. Blacktip reef sharks are harmless unless provoked. Incidents generally involve hand feeding or spear fishing, possibly in combination with low visibility.
The blacktip is one of only a few sharks that can jump fully out of the water, a behaviour called breaching. They have also been observed surfacing to look around (spy-hopping).[2]

Blacktip reef sharks are often the bycatch from other fisheries and are often wasted. Their populations are declining, and so are the population of many other shark species. Their fins are used for shark fin soup which is a major factor in the population decline in recent years.They don’t attack humans. (text source: Wikipedia)

Pictures: Misool Islands, Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia by Sami Salmenkivi

Variegated Lizardfish [Synodus variegatus]

 

 

lizarfish

Australia

 

Egypt

The variegated lizardfish, Synodus variegatus, is a lizardfish of the family Synodontidae, found in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, at depths from 4 m to 90 m. It can reach a maximum length of 40cm.
The variegated lizardfish is rounded in cross-section with a broad moderately flattened head containing a large wide mouth. The jaws protrude equally. Both jaws and all the mouth bones are covered with conical barbed teeth. The strong thick pelvic fins serve as props when the fish is resting on the bottom waiting for prey. Variegated lizardfish vary in color from grey to red hourglass shaped markings.

Picture: Great Barrier Reef, Australia and Dahab, Egypt by Sami Salmenkivi

Scirrortail sergeant [Abudefduf sexfasciatus]


female (male has yellow between stripes)

The Scissortail sergeant or Striptailed damselfish (Abudefduf sexfasciatus, family Pomacentridae) is a large damselfish. It earns its name from the black striped tail and sides, which are reminiscent of the insignia of a military Sergeant, being similar to those of the Sergeant Major damselfish. It grows to a length of about 16 cm (6 in).

Scissortail seargents are coral reef dwelling fish, living at depths of up to 15 m (50 ft) in tropical reaches, often living in a group surrounding a single head of coral. They are found on reefs in the Indo-Pacific area. The fish feed upon the larvae of invertebrates, zooplankton, smaller fishes, crustaceans and various species of algae. They are preyed upon by some members of the Labridae and Serranidae families. They lay their eggs in patches on a firm substrate and guard them vigorously until they hatch. (Text source: Wikipedia)

Picture: Ras Abu Galoum, Dahab, Egypt by Sami Salmenkivi